# Roman Numerals - Laws, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

While you think about numbers at present, the first of all that pops in your head is the decimal system we utilize everyday. This system, however, is not the only fashion to depict numbers. There are many approaches used by distinct cultures around the world that use all kinds of symbols. One such system is Roman numerals.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numbers have been a method of writing numbers using a combination of letters from the Latin alphabet. It existed across the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the point it is still educated in school, which is probably why you have come across this post.

Now, we are going to look at Roman numbers, definition, how they function, and how to transform Roman numerals to ordinary numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

First, let's look at a brief look at the past of Roman numbers. Roman numericals were first used by the ancient Romans, as you might have expected from the name. They were used in multiple angles of the Roman world, consisting of trade, architecture, and even warfare.

Nowadays, its main use is primarily due to artistic reasons. You may have observed Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, page numbering, chapter numbers, copyright dates, or in movie sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part III).

The Roman numeral system represents numericals using a combination of letters from the Latin alphabet. Letters are mixed to form groups that portray numericals. Seven letters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, depicts the numericals 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, separately. You can then combine these numbers to represent any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

While the decimal system is established on the ideas of place value, Roman numbers are established on additive and subtractive principles. This states that a Roman number's numeric values are based on the sum of the values of its particular parts. One more major difference is that the decimal system is established on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numbers are established on the numbers 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's check out a few hands-on examples of Roman numerals.

The electronic game street fighter IV was released in arcades as early as 2008. If we look at the number in the name, we see it consist of a V in it. This is because the number 5 in Roman numerals is described by the letter V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Thus, we understand that this is the 4th to enter in the series using the characteristics we will discuss subsequently in the article.

The movie Star Wars Episode VI was the latest entry in the original trilogy. Observing the value represented, it comprises a V ensued by an I. Thus, we will sum a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, concluding this Star Wars film is the 6th entry in the series.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numerals, it is important to understand the numeric value of all the characters. To help make this operation easy, here is a chart with every Latin alphabets with defined numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Convert from Roman Numerals to Regular Numbers

Since we have the convenient table of Roman numbers, we can utilize that data to transform numericals back and forth promptly. Following these steps, you will convert these values any time you want.

### Steps to Convert Roman numbers to Decimal Numbers

To change Roman numbers to everyday numericals, we will use the additive and subtractive principles we went through.

Start at the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is lesser in value, then sum the both values.

If the Roman number to its right is more in value, deduct the Roman numeral on the right out of the Roman numbers to its left.

All you must do now is replicate this method until you arrive at the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's check out how you can transform Roman numerals with a some examples.

### Example 1

Consider the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Initiate with the leftmost Roman numeral, that is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Since 10 is lesser than 50, we add the two values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and get 70.

The Roman number to the right of X is V or 5. Since 5 is less than 70, we add the two values and we find 75.

The Roman number to the right of V is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 75, we add the two values and get 76.

We cease here at the end of the Roman number group. Therefore, the Roman numeral LXXVI is equivalent to the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Consider the Roman number MCMIII.

Start at the leftmost Roman number, that is M or 1000.

The Roman numeral to its right is C or 100. Considering 100 is less than 1000, and it is ensued by an M, this value stands at 900.

The Roman numeral to the right of M is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 1900, we add the both values and we find 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and the result is 1902.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and the answer is 1903.

Because we have arrived the end of the Roman numeral group, we stop here with our answer. So, the Roman number MCMIII is equal to the regular number 1903.

With this information and a little practice, you will convert Roman numbers to decimal numbers like an expert!

## Grade Potential Can Support You with Roman Numbers

If you struggle to comprehend Roman numbers or any other math theories, don't hesitate to reach out to Grade Potential for help! Our experienced and educated tutors can assist you with Roman numbers and the rest of your arithmetic homework.

If you are seeking to sustain or get ahead, we’ll assist you excel in your academics so you can feel positive on test day. Book a hassle-free consultation!